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Amyloid structures assemble through a repeating type of bonding called “cross-β”, in which identical sequences in many protein molecules form β-sheets that interdigitate through side chain interactions. We review the structural characteristics of such bonds. Single cell force microscopy (SCFM) shows that yeast expressing Als5 adhesin from Candida albicans demonstrate the empirical characteristics of cross-β interactions. These properties include affinity for amyloid-binding dyes, birefringence, critical concentration dependence, repeating structure, and inhibition by anti-amyloid agents. We present a model for how cross-β bonds form in trans between two adhering cells. These characteristics also apply to other fungal adhesins, so the mechanism appears to be an example of a new type of cell–cell adhesion.


This work was originally published in Pathogens, available at 10.3390/pathogens10081013

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).

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