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To identify determinants of daily life stress in Africans in America, 156 African-born Blacks (Age: 40 ± 10 years (mean ± SD), range 22-65 years) who came to the United States as adults (age ≥ 18 years) were asked about stress, sleep, behavior and socioeconomic status. Daily life stress and sleep quality were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. High-stress was defined by the threshold of the upper quartile of population distribution of PSS (≥16) and low-stress as PSS < 16. Poor sleep quality required PSQI > 5. Low income was defined as groups, PSS were: 21 ± 4 versus 9 ± 4, p < 0.001 and PSQI were: 6 ± 3 versus 4 ± 3, p < 0.001, respectively. PSS and PSQI were correlated (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). The odds of high-stress were higher among those with poor sleep quality (OR 5.11, 95% CI: 2.07, 12.62), low income (OR 5.03, 95% CI: 1.75, 14.47), and no health insurance (OR 3.01, 95% CI: 1.19, 8.56). Overall, in African-born Blacks living in America, daily life stress appears to be linked to poor quality sleep and exacerbated by low income and lack of health insurance.


This work was originally published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, available at

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( 4.0/).



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