Introduction: Allostatic load (AL) defines cardiometabolic, inflammatory, and neuroendocrine changes in the body in response to internal and external stressors. It is largely unknown whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) alters maternal and fetal AL, which in turn affects GDM outcomes. Whether dietary intakes and quality can modify AL and thus influence GDM progression is also unknown.
Research: design and methods In this study, we recruited 35 GDM and 30 non-GDM women in gestational week 25–33. Fasting blood samples were collectedat enrollment, and cord venous blood samples were collected at delivery for the measurement of a series of AL biomarkers to calculate the composite AL index. Three-day dietary recalls were conducted at enrollment.
Results:Results suggest that GDM women had 60% higher composite AL index scores (p value=0.01). Maternal AL index was associated with shorter duration of gestation (β=−0.33, p value=0.047) and higher fetal AL index (β=0.47, p value=0.006) after adjusting for GDM status. Dietary intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was negatively associated with maternal AL index (β=−0.20, p value=0.006). GDM women had lower total caloric intake and dietary glycemic load, yet their linolenic acid, vitamin C and E intakes were also decreased (all p value
Conclusions: In this study, GDM status and dietary intakes modify AL in this population. AL may serve as an indicator of GDM control. Future research on dietary interventions that can improve maternal AL markers during GDM is warranted.