Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



The goal of this study was to determine the optimal chain length needed for tethering functional groups on bio-wastes. The purpose of modifying the surface of bio-waste is to improve their affinity for phenols. To this end, four different aminated green tea leaves, with the amine group located at the end of 6, 8, 10, and 12 carbons were synthesized. Green approaches to functionalization lead to fewer reactive sites. Optimizing spacer length is one way to ameliorate this. The aminated tea leaves were prepared by a tosylation reaction followed by displacement with a diamine used in excess. The tea leaves with the amine at the end of six carbons proved to have the best ability to remove 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from its aqueous solution. It was at least 3–4 times better than native spent tea leaves. The mechanism by which the phenol was removed proved to be primarily an acid–base reaction followed by H-bonding and dipole–dipole interactions. Because of the acid–base interactions, the relatively low-boiling 2-CP did not volatilize off the aminated tea leaves enabling recycling. On the other hand, with activated charcoal, the adsorbed 2-CP volatilized almost completely under ambient conditions.


This article was originally published in environments, available at doi:10.3390/environments5090100.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Included in

Biochemistry Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.