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Supplying adequate water for urban water systems (UWSs) suffering from lack of water resources has always been a major concern in urban water management. Integrated simulation models are useful tools for sustainable planning and management of UWSs. This paper presents an integrated, conceptual modeling approach for simulation and analysis of an UWS by which different envisaged scenarios of water demand and resources are assessed. Other than water flow, the simulation model quantifies flows of energy, GHG emissions and cost in UWS. The performance of the developed model is demonstrated through its application to the UWS of Kerman City located in an arid region of south-eastern Iran. Given a number of potential scenarios, a range of water allocation policies from surface and ground water resources were examined over a long term planning period and compared then based on five sustainability performance criteria. The scenarios analyzed included a combination of three different rates for both population growth and groundwater withdrawal. The water allocation policies were then ranked for each scenario using the compromise programming technique of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The highest ranked policy was unchanged in all scenarios as the one resulted from a policy compromising among different criteria. The lowest ranked policies are those withdrawing water from merely one type of water resource.


Session R55, Water Distribution Networks: Operational Aspects



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