Sustainable water supply for an urban water system (UWS) is a challenge especially when the system is subject to both climate change and increasing water demand. This paper presents a simulation-optimization approach for determining an optimal strategy for long term operation of UWSs. The simulation module is the conceptual WaterMet2 model which can quantify and evaluate the values of some pre-defined performance indicators through simulating the UWS operation. The optimization module is the genetic algorithm (GA) minimizing water abstraction from groundwater wells and total costs while maximizing the system reliability. The decision variables are the amounts of water allocated to different service reservoirs and demand zones. The developed approach is demonstrated through its application to the UWS of Kerman City located in the south-eastern part of Iran, which is suffering from decreasing water resources due to overexploitation of groundwater resources. The results show that the developed simulation optimization approach can effectively be used in finding a sustainable water supply strategy for the studied UWS under an extreme scenario with a significant increase in future water demands.
Nazari, Saeed; Mousavi, S. Jamshid; Behzadian, Kourosh; and Kapelan, Zoran, "Sustainable Urban Water Management: A Simulation Optimization Approach" (2014). CUNY Academic Works.