Scanning backscattering imaging and independent component analysis (ICA) are used to probe targets hidden in the subsurface of a turbid medium. A new correction procedure is proposed and used to synthesize a “clean” image of a homogeneous host medium numerically from a set of raster-scanned “dirty” backscattering images of the medium with embedded targets. The independent intensity distributions on the surface of the medium corresponding to individual targets are then unmixed using ICA of the difference between the set of dirty images and the clean image. The target positions are localized by a novel analytical method, which marches the target to the surface of the turbid medium until a match with the retrieved independent component is accomplished. The unknown surface property of the turbid medium is automatically accounted for by this method. Employing clean image synthesis and target numerical marching, three-dimensional (3D) localization of objects embedded inside a turbid medium using independent component analysis in a backscattering geometry is demonstrated for the first time, using as an example, imaging a small piece of cancerous prostate tissue embedded in a host consisting of normal prostate tissue.
Xu, M., Pu, Y. & Wang, W. (2011). Clean image synthesis and target numerical marching for optical imaging with backscattering light. Biomedical Optics Express, 2(4), 850-857. doi:10.1364/BOE.2.000850.