Examined the links between job-related stressors and depressive and psychophysiologic symptoms and morale in 67 New York City teachers. The teachers' mean score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was higher than might be expected from average community residents. The CES-D and a psychophysiologic symptom scale were correlated as highly as their reliabilities would permit, indicating that they measure the same construct, nonspecific psychological distress. The level of job strain (frequency of ongoing stressors) was more closely related to psychological distress and low morale than episodic stressors, including crimes in which the teacher was victim. Colleague support was related to lower symptom levels and higher morale.
Schonfeld, I. S. (1990). Psychological distress in a sample of teachers. The Journal Of Psychology: Interdisciplinary And Applied, 124, 321-338. doi:10.1080/00223980.1990.10543227