Background The process of metastasis involves a series of steps and interactions between the tumor embolus and the microenvironment. Key alterations in adhesion molecules are known to dictate progression from the invasive to malignant phenotype followed by colonization at a distant site. The invasive phenotype results from the loss of expression of the E-cadherin adhesion molecule, whereas the malignant phenotype is associated with an increased expression of the carbohydrate ligand-binding epitopes, (e.g. Sialyl Lewis x/a) that bind endothelial E-selectin of the lymphatics and vasculature. Methodology Our study analyzed the expression of two adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and Sialyl Lewis x (sLex), in both a canine mammary carcinoma and human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) model, using double labelled immunofluorescence staining. Results Our results demonstrate that canine mammary carcinoma and human IBC exhibit an inversely correlated cellular expression of E-cadherin and sLex within the same tumor embolus. Conclusions Our results in these two comparative models (canine and human) suggest the existence of a biologically coordinated mechanism of E-cadherin and sLex expression (i.e. molecular plasticity) essential for tumor establishment and metastatic progression.
Pinho, S. S., Reis, C. A., Gärtner, F. & Alpaugh, M. L. (2009). Molecular Plasticity of E-Cadherin and Sialyl Lewis X Expression, in Two Comparative Models of Mammary Tumorigenesis. PLoS ONE, 4(8), e6636. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006636.