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Aim: To detect pathological brain conditions early is a core procedure for patients so as to have enough time for treatment. Traditional manual detection is either cumbersome, or expensive, or time-consuming. We aim to offer a system that can automatically identify pathological brain images in this paper.Method: We propose a novel image feature, viz., Fractional Fourier Entropy (FRFE), which is based on the combination of Fractional Fourier Transform(FRFT) and Shannon entropy. Afterwards, the Welch’s t-test (WTT) and Mahalanobis distance (MD) were harnessed to select distinguishing features. Finally, we introduced an advanced classifier: twin support vector machine (TSVM). Results: A 10 x K-fold stratified cross validation test showed that this proposed “FRFE +WTT + TSVM” yielded an accuracy of 100.00%, 100.00%, and 99.57% on datasets that contained 66, 160, and 255 brain images, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed “FRFE +WTT + TSVM” method is superior to 20 state-of-the-art methods.


This article was originally published in Entropy, available at doi:10.3390/e17127877.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (



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