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Hybrids containing approximately equal amounts of P25 TiO2 and S-doped porous carbons were prepared using a water-based slurry mixing method. The materials were extensively characterized by adsorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, thermal analysis in air and in helium, XRD, XPS and SEM. The collected results showed the significant blockage of carbon micropores by TiO2 particles deposited on their outer surface. The formation of a new interface, especially for the S-rich samples, might also contribute to the porosity alteration. Analysis of surface chemistry suggested the presence of Ti-S bonds with an involvement of sulfur from thiophenic species in the carbon phase. The latter, especially when polymer-derived, was mainly deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles. Formation of Ti-S stabilized sulfur and increased the ignition temperature of the hybrids, especially those with a high content of sulfur, in comparison with the ignition temperature of carbons. The surfaces of hybrid with S-containing carbons was also thermally very stable and of basic chemical nature. The formation of interfacial structures Ti-C was detected by XPS analysis suggesting a partial reduction of the Ti.


This article was originally published in Molecules, available at doi:10.3390/molecules24193585.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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