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This study aimed to clarify the role of glypican-1 and PECAM-1 in shear-induced nitric oxide production in endothelial cells. Atomic force microscopy pulling was used to apply force to glypican-1 and PECAM-1 on the surface of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and nitric oxide was measured using a fluorescent reporter dye. Glypican-1 pulling for 30 min stimulated nitric oxide production while PECAM-1 pulling did not. However, PECAM-1 downstream activation was necessary for the glypican-1 force-induced response. Glypican-1 knockout mice exhibited impaired flow-induced phosphorylation of eNOS without changes to PECAM-1 expression. A cooperation mechanism for the mechanotransduction of fluid shear stress to nitric oxide production was elucidated in which glypican-1 senses flow and phosphorylates PECAM-1 leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and nitric oxide production.


This article was originally published in Scientific Reports, available at

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