Optical non-linear phenomena are typically observed in natural materials interacting with light at high intensities, and they benefit a diverse range of applications from communication to sensing. However, controlling harmonic conversion with high efficiency and flexibility remains a major issue in modern optical and radio-frequency systems. Here, we introduce a dynamic time-domain digital-coding metasurface that enables efficient manipulation of spectral harmonic distribution. By dynamically modulating the local phase of the surface reflectivity, we achieve accurate control of different harmonics in a highly programmable and dynamic fashion, enabling unusual responses, such as velocity illusion. As a relevant application, we propose and realize a novel architecture for wireless communication systems based on the time-domain digital-coding metasurface, which largely simplifies the architecture of modern communication systems, at the same time yielding excellent performance for real-time signal transmission. The presented work, from new concept to new system, opens new pathways in the application of metamaterials to practical technology.