The current COVID-19 pandemic urges the extremely sensitive and prompt detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we present a Human Angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2)-functionalized gold “virus traps” nanostructure as an extremely sensitive SERS biosensor, to selectively capture and rapidly detect S-protein expressed coronavirus, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 in the contaminated water, down to the single-virus level. Such a SERS sensor features extraordinary 106- fold virus enrichment originating from high-affinity of ACE2 with S protein as well as “virus-traps” composed of oblique gold nanoneedles, and 109- fold enhancement of Raman signals originating from multicomponent SERS effects. Furthermore, the identification standard of virus signals is established by machine-learning and identification techniques, resulting in an especially low detection limit of 80 copies mL− 1 for the simulated contaminated water by SARS-CoV-2 virus with complex circumstance as short as 5 min, which is of great significance for achieving real-time monitoring and early warning of coronavirus. Moreover, here-developed method can be used to establish the identification standard for future unknown coronavirus, and immediately enable extremely sensitive and rapid detection of novel virus.