Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name



Educational Psychology


Marian Fish

Committee Members

Helen Johnson

David Rindskopf

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | School Psychology


mindfulness, fragile self-esteem, hostile attribution style, college


This study aimed to expand upon existing literature pertaining to self-perception, awareness towards the environment, and related attributions. Specifically, mindfulness and self-esteem, as well as the subset of fragile self-esteem, were examined as predictors of a hostile attribution style (HAS). Additionally, self-esteem and fragile self-esteem were investigated as correlates of mindfulness. Undergraduate students from across the country were invited via social media to participate in this online study. A total of 190 students completed four surveys used for data analyses: the Mindful-Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RES; Rosenberg 1965), Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS; Crocker et al., 2003), and the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ; Combs et al., 2007). Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine whether hostile attribution style varies as a function of self-esteem, self-worth, fragile self-esteem, and mindfulness. Furthermore, a three-step path model was proposed to examine the relationship among the variables. Findings confirmed that increased mindfulness is related to decreased HAS, low self-esteem is related to increased HAS, and high self-esteem is related to increased mindfulness. Self-worth as an added moderator did not support the relationship between self-esteem and mindfulness, and self-esteem and HAS. Additionally, fragile self-esteem did not predict any additional variability. The first mediational path model supported that self-esteem and self-worth can have a direct effect on mindfulness, however, a direct effect on HAS was not supported. The second path model presented mindfulness as a significant mediator between self-esteem and hostile attribution style. Finally, findings suggested that mindfulness and self-esteem covary in their relationship with HAS. Educational implications and interventions are explored.