Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name



Political Science


Stephanie Golob

Committee Members

Kenneth Erickson

Yan Sun

Subject Categories

Comparative Politics | International Relations


democratization, Internet, party politics, East Asia, Latin America


The dynamics between social movements and political parties are shifting in the 21st century. Due to the emergence of information communication technologies (ICTs), political parties are facing increased pressure to use ICTs to co-exist, complement, and nurture social movements and empowered civic communities (Nahon, 2015). However, this shift is not ahistorical and technologically deterministic. Rather, the shifting relationship between social movements and political parties is one that can be shaped by a variety of demographic and socio-economic factors as well as preexisting cultures of resistance, activism, and electoral campaigning. This research examines potential patterns and casual mechanisms which can help explain how ICTs enable new political opportunities which can shift relations between movements and political parties in emerging democracies. Specifically, the case studies reveal that history matters and that contextual factors such as successive student movements and a country’s human development, particularly education, can help us understand the changing relationship between social movements and political parties.