Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name



Middle Eastern Studies


Kristina Richardson

Subject Categories

Asian History | History of Religion | Islamic Studies | Islamic World and Near East History


Mawlid, Muhammad Iqbal, Sufism, Sufi Literature


Many Sufi poets are known for their literary masterpieces that combine the tropes of love, religion, and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In a thorough analysis of these works, readers find that not only were these prominent authors drawing from Sufi ideals to venerate the Prophet, but also outputting significant propositions and arguments that helped maintain the preservation of Islamic values, and rebuild Muslim culture in a South Asian subcontinent that had been in a state of colonization for centuries. The continued practice of both ritualistic and literary veneration of the Prophet became a key factor in this preservation and rejuvenation of Islamic beliefs and customs. An examination of these practices, along with the study of the public ceremonies held in honor of the life and birth of the Prophet, the mawlid, the works of Sufi poets such as Muhammad Iqbal who built off of the works of renowned Sufi shaykhs and became one of the most influential South Asian men of his time, this work sets out to show how both genres of devotion were key to the rebuilding of Muslim sentiment and culture in colonial and post-colonial South Asia.