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The Gunnarsson-Lundqvist (GL) theorem of density functional theory states that there is a one-to-one relationship between the density of the lowest nondegenerate excited state of a given symmetry and the external potential. As a consequence, knowledge of this excited state density determines the external potential uniquely. [The GL theorem is the equivalent for such excited states of theHohenberg-Kohn (HK) theorem for nondegenerate ground states.] For other excited states, there is no equivalent of the GL or HK theorem. For these states, there thus exist multiple potentials that generate the excited-state density. We show, by example, the satisfaction that the GL theorem holds and the multiplicity of potentials for excited states.


This work was originallu published in Physical Review A, available at



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