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Two central forces re-shaping education in the 21st century in the United States are the increasingly diverse and rich multilingual practices of students, as well as our growing use of digital technologies to communicate and make meaning (Deumert, 2014; García, Bartlett & Kleifgen, 2007; Jewitt, 2008; New London Group, 1996). Even if much scholarship has focused on the trends of multilingualism and multimodalities as separate entities, there are many intersections. Digital tools like machine translation software are being used in schools by multilingual students, and their often-monolingual teachers. Frameworks for multilingual teaching and learning involving intentional use of machine translation tools, however, are not yet fully incorporated into curriculum, school policies and practice. In this chapter, we analyse a case study of how an emergent bilingual who had arrived recently in the United States from China used machine translation software (Google Translate) in a sixth-grade general education classroom during writing activities.


Vogel, S., Ascenzi-Moreno, L., & García, O. (2018). An Expanded View of Translanguaging: Leveraging the Dynamic Interactions Between a Young Multilingual Writer and Machine Translation Software. In J. Choi & S. Ollerhead (Eds.), Plurilingualism in Teaching and Learning: Complexities Across Contexts (pp. 89–106). London, United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis Ltd.



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