Graduation Date

Fall 12-16-2018

Grading Professor

Marshall Allen

Subject Concentration

Health & Science

Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


An episiotomy, a surgical cut used to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, can be extremely painful, hard to recover from and can increase the risk of severe complications. In 2018, episiotomies are rarely necessary, but at some U.S. hospitals they happen much more than they should. And in the course reporting this story, New York City News Service found that it is common for doctors to cut women without the mother’s consent.

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Main source portrait

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graph of NYC episiotomy rates, 2016



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