Health & Science
Master of Arts (MA)
An episiotomy, a surgical cut used to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, can be extremely painful, hard to recover from and can increase the risk of severe complications. In 2018, episiotomies are rarely necessary, but at some U.S. hospitals they happen much more than they should. And in the course reporting this story, New York City News Service found that it is common for doctors to cut women without the mother’s consent.
Enking, Molly Cora, "Women are being cut during childbirth without need or consent" (2018). CUNY Academic Works.