We report on the detection of electric field–induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) from the anode interfaces of reduced and oxidized Fe-doped SrTiO3 (Fe:STO) single crystals. For the reduced crystal, we observe steady enhancements of the susceptibility components as the imposed dc-voltage increases. The enhancements are attributed to a field-stabilized electrostriction, leading to Fe:Ti-O bond stretching and bending in Fe:Ti-O6 octahedra. For the oxidized crystal, no obvious structural changes are observed below 16 kV/cm. Above 16 kV/cm, a sharp enhancement of the susceptibilities occurs due to local electrostrictive deformations in response to oxygen vacancy migrations away from the anode. Differences between the reduced and oxidized crystals are explained by their relative oxygen vacancy and free carrier concentrations which alter internal electric fields present at the Pt/Fe:STO interfaces. Our results show that the optical SHG technique is a powerful tool for detecting structural changes near perovskite-based oxide interfaces due to field-driven oxygen vacancy migration.