The aim of this study is to examine the reproductive history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women, before and after HIV diagnosis, to describe the characteristics of women with pregnancies after HIV diagnosis, and to assess the prevalence of mother-to-child transmission.
A cross-sectional study was performed among women within reproductive ages (18–49) selected from the cohort in the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS). A descriptive analysis of the pregnancy outcomes was made according to women’s serostatus at the moment of pregnancy and association of women’s characteristics with having pregnancy after HIV diagnosis was evaluated using logistic regression models.
Overall, 161 women were interviewed; of them, 86% had been pregnant at least once and 39% after HIV diagnosis. There were 347 pregnancies, 29% of them occurred after HIV diagnosis and in these, 20% were miscarriages and 29% were voluntary termination of pregnancy. There were 3 cases of mother-to-child transmission among the 56 children born from HIV-positive mothers; in these cases, women were diagnosed during delivery. Having a pregnancy after HIV diagnosis was more likely when the younger women were at the time of diagnosis: odds ratio (OR)=1.29 (95% confidence interval 0.40–4.17) for 25 to 29 years old, OR=0.59 (0.15–2.29) for 30 to 34 years old, OR=0.14 (0.03–0.74) for ≥35 years old, compared with thosediagnosis, who were diagnosed for ≥5 years (OR=5.27 [1.71–16.18]), who received antiretroviral treatment at some point (OR=9.38 [1.09–80.45]), and who received information on reproductive health (OR=4.32 [1.52–12.26]).
An important number of pregnancies occurred after HIV diagnosis, reflecting a desire for motherhood in these women.Reproductive and sexual health should be tackled in medical follow-ups.