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Mitomycin C (MC) is a cytotoxic and mutagenic antitumor agent that alkylates DNA upon reductive activation. 2,7-Diaminomitosene (2,7-DAM) is a major metabolite of MC in tumor cells, which also alkylates DNA. MC forms seven DNA adducts, including monoadducts and inter- and intrastrand cross-links, whereas 2,7-DAM forms two monoadducts. Herein, the biological effects of the dG-N2 adducts formed by MC and 2,7-DAM have been compared by constructing single-stranded plasmids containing these adducts and replicating them in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Translesion synthesis (TLS) efficiencies of dG-N2-MC and dG-N2-2,7-DAM were 38 ± 3 and 27 ± 3%, respectively, compared to that of a control plasmid. This indicates that both adducts block DNA synthesis and that dG-N2-2,7-DAM is a stronger replication block than dG-N2-MC. TLS of each adducted construct was reduced upon siRNA knockdown of pol η, pol κ, or pol ζ. For both adducts, the most significant reduction occurred with knockdown of pol κ, which suggests that pol κ plays a major role in TLS of these dG-N2 adducts. Analysis of the progeny showed that both adducts were mutagenic, and the mutation frequencies (MF) of dG-N2-MC and dG-N2-2,7-DAM were 18 ± 3 and 10 ± 1%, respectively. For both adducts, the major type of mutation was G → T transversions. Knockdown of pol η and pol ζ reduced the MF of dG-N2-MC and dG-N2-2,7-DAM, whereas knockdown of pol κ increased the MF of these adducts. This suggests that pol κ predominantly carries out error-free TLS, whereas pol η and pol ζ are involved in error-prone TLS. The largest reduction in MF by 78 and 80%, respectively, for dG-N2-MC and dG-N2-2,7-DAM constructs occurred when pol η, pol ζ, and Rev1 were simultaneously knocked down. This result strongly suggests that, unlike pol κ, these three TLS polymerases cooperatively perform the error-prone TLS of these adducts.


This article originally appeared in Chemical Research in Toxicology, available at DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox. 6b00087.

This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.



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