Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Cross-regulation of Toll-like receptor responses by cytokines is essential for effective host defense, avoidance of toxicity, and homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. A comprehensive epigenomic approach in human macrophages showed that the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and type I IFNs induce transcriptional cascades that alter chromatin states to broadly reprogram TLR4-induced responses. TNF tolerized inflammatory genes to prevent toxicity, while preserving antiviral and metabolic gene induction. Type I IFNs potentiated TNF inflammatory function by priming chromatin to prevent silencing of inflammatory NF-κB target genes. Priming of chromatin enabled robust transcriptional responses to weak upstream signals. Similar chromatin regulation occurred in human diseases. Our findings reveal that signaling crosstalk between IFNs and TNF is integrated at the level of chromatin to reprogram inflammatory responses, and identify new functions and mechanisms of action of these cytokines.


This article was originally published in Nature Immunology, available at doi:10.1038/ni.3818.

Users may view, print, copy, and download text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use:



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.