Background: The study investigated the economic burden of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients, through assessment of overall utilization and costs and costs per VOC episode (regarding the number of VOC episodes and health care setting, respectively).
Methods: Using the Medicaid Analytic Extracts database, the first SCD-related diagnosis claim (index claim) between June 1, 2009–December 31, 2012 was identified among eligible adults. Patients were required to have continuous medical and pharmacy benefits for 6 months pre- and 12 months post-index. Discrete VOC claims identified within a 3-day gap were combined as a single VOC episode. Annual all-cause and SCD-related medical resources and costs were identified and stratified by number of VOC episodes during the 1-year follow-up period. Health care costs per VOC episode were also examined, stratified by care setting.
Results: Enrollees included 8521 eligible patients with a mean age of 32.88 years (SD=12.21). Of these, 66.5% had a Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) score of 0 (no comorbidities) and 67.3% were female. The average total medical costs were US$34 136 (median=US$12 691) annually, and SCD accounted for 60% of the total costs (mean=US$20 206, median=US$1204). Patients with >3 episodes had the highest annual SCD-related costs (mean=US$58 950) across all settings. Health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs increased substantially as the number of VOC episodes increased. This study was limited to observation of associations rather than causal inference, and by possible coding and identification discrepancies and the restricted generalizability of the population.
Conclusions: VOC has a severe impact on medical resource use and costs among the adult SCD population. Further research among broader study populations is needed to facilitate the reduction of VOC episodes and thereby improve clinical and economic outcomes for SCD patients.