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This work explores the diffusivity of a lanthanide complex, Eovist (Gadolinium-Ethoxy Benzyl Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) that is stable in neutral media but is not in acidic environment. In the current work an acidic fruit model like pineapple that is rich in transition metals was used and a possible transmetallation reaction among Eovist and transition metal complexes was tested using X-ray imaging. Another goal of this work was to perturb the usual and the unusual photosynthesis systems that pineapple has maintained for millions of years during the evolution of circadian genes for efficient water conservation by dark photosynthesis. To detect such photosynthesis Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy was used for pineapple samples in a dark box, and to test if added lanthanide complex and preexisting transition metals in pineapple can affect such photosynthesis systems, X-ray imaging and Near-infrared reflection spectroscopy were performed pre and post infusion of Eovist in pineapple samples. Time series, low energy X-ray images showed heterogeneous distribution of Gadolinium at different locations in the pineapple samples. This could be explained if competing transition metal ions could steal Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate ligands from the inner sphere of Gadolinium altering the size and thus diffusivity of Gadolinium complex. Near-infrared data showed red-shifted peaks characteristic of dark photosynthesis, similar to ones observed in cyano bacteria, but did not show any noticeable shifts due to the infused Gadolinium complex. Transmetallation and ionic exchange in such unique model fruits may have scientific, medical and agricultural implications for efficient solar cells, tissue regeneration as well as enhanced plantation using high efficiency photosynthesis.


Originally published as Sarkar, S., Vinokur, Z., Xu, C., Soloviova, T., Shahbaz, A. and Gjoni, A., 2020. Mapping gadolinium contrast in a complex ionic and photosynthesis environment of pineapple by near-infrared and X-ray imaging. Spectroscopy Letters, 53(7), pp.505-511,

Available for download on Saturday, September 18, 2021