Autologous blood products, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are commercial products broadly used to accelerate healing of tissues after injuries. However, their content is not standardized and significantly varies in composition, which may lead to differences in clinical efficacy. Also, the underlying molecular mechanisms for therapeutic effects are not well understood.
A proteomic study was performed to compare the composition of low leukocyte PRP, platelet poor plasma (PPP), and blood plasma. Pathway analysis of the proteomic data was performed to evaluate differences between plasma formulations at the molecular level. Low abundance regulatory proteins in plasma were identified and quantified as well as cellular pathways regulated by those proteins.
Quantitative proteomic analysis, using multiplexed isotopically labeled tags (TMT labeling) and label-free tandem mass spectrometry, was performed on plasma, low leukocyte PRP, and PPP. Plasma formulations were derived from two blood donors (one donor per experiment). Pathway analysis of the proteomic data identified the major differences between formulations.
Nearly 600 proteins were detected in three types of blood plasma formulations in two experiments. Identified proteins showed more than 50% overlap between plasma formulations. Detected proteins represented more than 100 canonical pathways, as was identified by pathway analysis. The major pathways and regulatory molecules were linked to inflammation.
Three types of plasma formulations were compared in two proteomic experiments. The most represented pathways, such as Acute Phase Response, Coagulation, or System of the Complement, had many proteins in common in both experiments. In both experiments plasma sample sets had the same direction of biochemical pathway changes: up- or down-regulation. The most represented biochemical pathways are linked to inflammation.