We compile a Mexican insular herpetofaunal checklist to estimate endemism, conservation status, island threats, net taxonomic turnover among six biogeographic provinces belonging to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, and the relationships between island area and mainland distance versus species richness. We compile a checklist of insular herpetofaunal through performing a literature and collection review. We define the conservation status according to conservation Mexican law, the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature, and Environmental Vulnerability Scores. We determine threat percentages on islands according to the 11 major classes of threats to biodiversity. We estimate the net taxonomic turnover with beta diversity analysis between the Nearctic and Neotropical provinces. The Mexican insular herpetofauna is composed of 18 amphibian species, 204 species with 101 subspecies of reptiles, and 263 taxa in total. Endemism levels are 11.76% in amphibians, 53.57% in reptiles, and 27.91% being insular endemic taxa. Two conservation status systems classify the species at high extinction risk, while the remaining system suggests less concern. However, all systems indicate species lacking assessment. Human activities and exotic alien species are present on 60% of 131 islands. The taxonomic turnover value is high (0.89), with a clear herpetofaunal differentiation between the two biogeographic regions. The species–area and species–mainland distance relationships are positive. Insular herpetofauna faces a high percentage of threats, with the Neotropical provinces more heavily impacted. It is urgent to explore the remaining islands (3,079 islands) and better incorporate insular populations and species in ecological, evolutionary, and systematic studies. In the face of the biodiversity crisis, islands will play a leading role as a model to apply restoration and conservation strategies.