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Impact of demographics and socioeconomic status (SES) on anticoagulant treatment outcomes among patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is not well understood. This study evaluated risks of recurrent VTE, major bleeding (MB), and clinically relevant non-major bleeding (CRNMB) among older patients with VTE initiating apixaban or warfarin stratified by demographics and SES.


Adult patients (≥ 65 years) who initiated apixaban or warfarin after a VTE event were selected from the US CMS Medicare database (September 2014–December 2017). Stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance patient characteristics between treatment cohorts. Patients were stratified by age, gender, race, and SES. For each subgroup, Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate if there was a significant interaction (p < 0.10) between treatment and subgroup for recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNMB.


In total, 22,135 apixaban and 45,840 warfarin patients with VTE were included. Post-IPTW, patient characteristics were balanced between treatment cohorts. In older patients, apixaban treatment was associated with significantly lower risks of recurrent VTE (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52–0.79), MB (HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.57–0.75), and CRNMB (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.75–0.85) versus warfarin. When stratified by demographics and SES, higher incidence rates of recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNMB were observed for black vs white patients and patients with lower vs higher SES. Comparison of apixaban with warfarin by different demographic and SES subgroups showed generally consistent results as the overall analysis. For most subgroups, no significant interaction was observed between treatment and subgroup strata for recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNMB.


Among older patients with VTE initiating apixaban or warfarin, higher rates of recurrent VTE and bleeding were observed in black patients and patients with lower SES. Apixaban had a lower risk of recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNMB compared to warfarin. Analyses of demographic and SES subgroups showed consistent findings.


This article was originally published as Cohen, A.T., Sah, J., Dhamane, A.D. et al. Effectiveness and Safety of Apixaban Versus Warfarin Among Older Patients with Venous Thromboembolism with Different Demographics and Socioeconomic Status. Adv Ther 38, 5519–5533 (2021). and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY 4.0) License.



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