Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Many STEM-related K-12 education standards, such as the Next Generation Science Standards, Standards for Technological Literacy, and Common Core Mathematics Standards, place great emphasis on designing as a way of delivering their core concepts. However, the classroom delivery of core design concepts has been the focus of very few studies. Particularly, most design-based lessons use a design process model, which poses a challenge for many engineering and technology educators. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the actual process of engineering design using the sequential pattern analysis method. The researchers collected ten Concurrent Think-Aloud (CTA) protocols from fourth grade elementary students. The collected CTA sessions were coded using Halfin’s codes, and then analyzed using the sequential pattern analysis method. The study results suggested there exist iterative patterns of design cycles when participant students were more likely to follow specific iterative sequential patterns. To better illustrate these design behaviors, the researchers created a design pattern model based on the sequential analysis.


Sung, E., & Kelley, T. (2017, June), Understanding Young Students' Problem Solving Pathways: Building a Design Process Model Based on Sequential Analysis Paper presented at 2017 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Columbus, Ohio. 10.18260/1-2--29057 © 2017 American Society for Engineering Education.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.