We report the collective behavior of numerous plastic bolt-like particles exhibiting one of two distinct states, either standing stationary or horizontal accompanied by tumbling motion, when placed on a horizontal plate undergoing sinusoidal vertical vibration. Experimentally, we prepared an initial state in which all of the particles were standing except for a single particle that was placed at the center of the plate. Under continuous vertical vibration, the initially horizontal particle triggers neighboring particles to fall over into a horizontal state through tumbling-induced collision, and this effect gradually spreads to all of the particles, i.e., the number of horizontal particles is increased. Interestingly, within a certain range of vibration intensity, almost all of the horizontal particles revert back to standing in association with the formation of apparent 2D hexagonal dense-packing. Thus, phase segregation between high and low densities, or crystalline and disperse domains, of standing particles is generated as a result of the reentrant transition. The essential features of such cooperative dynamics through the reentrant transition are elucidated with a simple kinetic model. We also demonstrate that an excitable wave with the reentrant transition is observed when particles are situated in a quasi-one-dimensional confinement on a vibrating plate.
Takatori, Satoshi; Baba, Hikari; Ichino, Takatoshi; Shew, Chwen-Yang; and Yoshikawa, Kenichi, "Cooperative standing-horizontalstanding reentrant transition for numerous solid particles under external vibration" (2018). CUNY Academic Works.