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Online course-packs are marketed as improving grades in introductory-level coursework, yet it is unknown whether these course-packs can effectively replace, as opposed to supplement, in-class instruction. This study compared learning outcomes for Introductory Psychology students in hybrid and traditional sections, with hybrid sections replacing 30% of in-class time with online homework using the MyPsychLab course-pack and Blackboard course management system. Data collected over two semesters (N = 730 students in six hybrid and nine traditional sections of ∼50 students) indicated equivalent final-grade averages and rates of class attrition. Although exam averages did not differ by class format, exam grades in hybrid sections decreased to a significantly greater extent over the course of the semester than in traditional sections. MyPsychLab homework grades in hybrid sections correlated with exam grades, but were relatively low (66.4%) due to incomplete work—suggesting that hybrid students may have engaged with course materials less than traditional students. Faculty who taught in both formats noted positive features of hybrid teaching, but preferred traditional classes, citing challenges in time management and student usage of instructional technology. Although hybrid students often reported difficulties or displeasure in working online about half of them indicated interest in taking other hybrid classes.


This is the authors' accepted manuscript of a work originally published in Psychology Learning & Teaching, available at



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