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Objectives: We describe the development and validation of measures of human papillomavirus (HPV)/HPV vaccination knowledge, fear/anxiety about vaccination, involvement in HPV vaccine decision-making, and self-efficacy with regard to getting the vaccine, designed to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention to affect these domains (collectively termed the HAVIQ: HPV Adolescent Vaccine Intervention Questionnaire). Study design: Literature search, cognitive interviews and cross-sectional survey.

Methods: A literature search identified existing items that were modified for the present measures. Experts reviewed draft measures for face and content validity. Cognitive interviews with adolescents were also used to assess content validity. Adolescents completed the measures and an internal reliability analysis of each measure was performed.

Results: The four experts concurred that the measures had face validity. Cognitive interviews identified items requiring refinement. Content validity was examined with ten experts and was deemed acceptable. There were 1800 adolescents who completed the measures; Cronbach's alpha was >0.6 for three of the four measures. The four final measures are brief, comprising 25 items in total.


This article was originally published in Public Health, available at

This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).



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