Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Mode of delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) is thought to affect gut microbiota, which in turn may affect psychological well-being. As such, mode of delivery is potentially a modifiable factor for psychological well-being. Here we examined the association of mode of delivery with child and adolescent psychological well-being. We used multivariable linear regression in a populationrepresentative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort, “Children of 1997,” to examine the adjusted associations of mode of delivery with behavioral problems assessed from parent-reported Rutter score at ~7 (n = 6294) and ~11 years (n = 5598), self-esteem assessed from self-reported Culture-Free Self- Esteem Inventory score at ~11 years (n = 6937) and depressive symptoms assessed from self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score at ~13 years (n = 5797). Cesarean Section (CS) was associated with children born in private hospitals, boys, and firstborns, higher maternal body mass index, higher maternal age, preeclampsia, higher socioeconomic position (SEP) and maternal birth in Hong Kong. CS was unrelated to behavior, self-esteem and depressive symptoms adjusted for infant characteristics (sex, gestational age, birthweight, parity and breast feeding), maternal characteristics (mother’s age and place of birth) and SEP. In a developed non-Western setting, mode of delivery was not clearly associated with childhood or early adolescent psychological well-being.


This article was originally published in Scientific Reports, available at DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-15810-x.

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.