Most of the programs listed below are interdisciplinary, i.e., they combine courses in literature, language or culture with work in sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, history, philosophy, psychology, biology and related fields. Some programs offer minors (denoted by *), others award the B.A. (denoted by **) or A.A. degree (denoted by ***), still others offer the M.A. (denoted by+). Only one offers the Ph.D. (denoted by †). Programs listed without a specific label offer a roster of elective courses. Where no chairperson is listed, either the program is still in the process of organization or it has chosen to function through a committee, rather than a single individual.