Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



This article presents a theoretical discussion of the relationship between language ideologies and language attitudes and builds on previous work by providing an organized framework connecting these notions. This framework is evaluated with reference to online and offline ethnographic work surrounding attitudes and ideologies about anglicisms, or English loanwords, among German hip hop fans and artists. Language attitudes are theorized as individual thoughts and expressions about language, and are often, but not always, informed by individual reproductions of language ideologies, which are conceived of as systematic, shared over groups of individuals, enduring, and mediated. Language ideologies can then be organized into interacting language ideology complexes, and I identify here a Standard Language Ideology Complex constituted of standard language ideology, Herderian ideology, and language purism working in concert. This Standard Language Ideology Complex frames metalinguistic discourse in the German-speaking sphere, and interviews with hip hop fans and artists in this study demonstrate the extent to which this ideological complex fundamentally frames and underlies conversations about language, even, somewhat surprisingly, in a space and subculture which has been conceived of as creative and counterhegemonic.


This article was originally published in Volume 7, Issue 3 of Critical Multilingualism Studies (ISSN 2325-2871), available at



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.