Date of Degree

2-2014

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph.D.

Program

Computer Science

Advisor(s)

Ioannis Stamos

Subject Categories

Computer Sciences | Mathematics

Keywords

Fourier Transform, Periodic Structures, Repeated Patterns, Self Similarity, Tree Modeling, Windows

Abstract

Despite the apparent chaos of the urban environment, cities are actually replete with regularity. From the grid of streets laid out over the earth, to the lattice of windows thrown up into the sky, periodic regularity abounds in the urban scene. Just as salient, though less uniform, are the self-similar branching patterns of trees and vegetation that line streets and fill parks. We propose novel methods for discovering these regularities in 3D range scans acquired by a time-of-flight laser sensor. The applications of this regularity information are broad, and we present two original algorithms. The first exploits the efficiency of the Fourier transform for the real-time detection of periodicity in building facades. Periodic regularity is discovered online by doing a plane sweep across the scene and analyzing the frequency space of each column in the sweep. The simplicity and online nature of this algorithm allow it to be embedded in scanner hardware, making periodicity detection a built-in feature of future 3D cameras. We demonstrate the usefulness of periodicity in view registration, compression, segmentation, and facade reconstruction. The second algorithm leverages the hierarchical decomposition and locality in space of the wavelet transform to find stochastic parameters for procedural models that succinctly describe vegetation. These procedural models facilitate the generation of virtual worlds for architecture, gaming, and augmented reality. The self-similarity of vegetation can be inferred using multi-resolution analysis to discover the underlying branching patterns. We present a unified framework of these tools, enabling the modeling, transmission, and compression of high-resolution, accurate, and immersive 3D images.

 
 

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