Supply chain viability (SCV) is an emerging concept of growing importance in operations management. This paper aims to conceptualize, develop, and validate a measurement scale for SCV. SCV is first defined and operationalized as a construct, followed by content validation and item measure development. Data have been collected through three independent samplings comprising a total of 558 respondents. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used in a step-wise manner for scale development. Reliability and validity are evaluated. A nomological model is theorized and tested to evaluate nomological validity. For the first time, our study frames SCV as a novel and distinct construct. The findings show that SCV is a hierarchical and multidimensional construct, reflected in organizational structures, organizational resources, dynamic design capabilities, and operational aspects. The findings reveal that a central characteristic of SCV is the dynamic reconfiguration of SC structures in an adaptive manner to ensure survival in the long-term perspective. This research conceptualizes and provides specific, validated dimensions and item measures for SCV. Practitioner directed guidance and suggestions are offered for improving SCV during the COVID-19 pandemic and future severe disruptions.