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  • A multi-year qualitative study of undergraduates at six colleges at the City University of New York focused on how, where, and when students accomplished their academic work and how the presence or absence of access to technology helped and hindered them.
  • CUNY students have an average commute time of 45–60 minutes each way and typically use public transportation, making commuting a defining feature of undergraduate life at CUNY that offers both opportunities and challenges.
  • The study sought to understand how students made time and found space to do their schoolwork outside of class, including their use of technology for coursework.
  • Among its outcomes, the study offers concrete steps that other institutions can take to help mitigate technology constraints for their own students.


This work was originally published in EDUCAUSE Review Online, available at



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