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Drops are hydraulic structures that are commonly used in irrigation and waste water collection networks. A vertical drop balances the elevation difference between the channel slope and ground slope. Earlier investigations on this structure have mainly focused on experimental studies of the hydraulic characteristics. In this paper, the hydraulic characteristics of vertical drops with inverse apron have been studied numerically with used of Fluent software to solve the finite volume method. The volume of fluid (volume of fluid) was used for modeling the free surface. Flow characteristics such as downstream depth, pool depth and energy loss were calculated and compared with the experimental values. Different turbulent models and grids have been studied. The numerical results with a 52745-node grid, 1.5 meter downstream channel length, standard k-ε turbulence model and standard wall function showed the best agreement and the numerical downstream depth, pool depth and energy loss followed the theoretical equations very well. Finally the numerical impact velocities were compared to empirical equation for different cases and showed little discrepancy, therefore velocity characteristics of falling jet were calculated.


Session R21, Energy and Fluids



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