This work is aimed at analyzing and comparing three different phased approaches for constrained minimum-cost design of water distribution networks: the single-step design with demand feedback, the multi-step design without demand feedback and the multi-step design with demand feedback. The difference between the single-step design and the multi-step design lies in the fact that whereas the former entails optimizing a single construction step at a time, i.e. the current construction phase, the latter is based on the phasing of construction and then is aimed at optimizing the current construction phase and all the subsequent phases, included inside a certain temporal horizon, simultaneously. The demand feedback is here used as a pragmatic tool for updating the forecast at some specific time instant of the future demand growth: such an update is performed by setting the future demand growth equal to that really observed in the previous time step. Alternatively, the predicted demand growth rate at the generic time instant can be kept equal to the value assumed at the time instant when the generic node appears, without taking account of the demand variation really observed in time in the node (absence of demand feedback). Applications to a real case study show that the multi-step design with the demand feedback is the most reliable because it makes it possible to reduce the overall construction costs while attenuating the occurrence of pressure deficits in the various construction steps of the network.
Creaco, Enrico; Franchini, Marco; and Walski, Tom, "Comparison Of Various Phased Approaches For The Constrained Minimum-Cost Design Of Water Distribution Networks" (2014). CUNY Academic Works.