Dissertations and Theses

Date of Award


Document Type



International Relations

First Advisor

Jacques Fomerand

Second Advisor

Jean Krasno


Water Management, Indus River Basin, Water Scarcity, Pakistan, India, Water Wars


Water is a fundamental need of all living things. The right to clean water is classified as a human right under United Nations Resolution 64/292.As such it is the responsibility of governments to ensure its citizens are not deprived of this essential resource. In doing so, effective water management is crucial to provide clean water that is accessible to everyone regardless of any challenges such as geographical constraints or political disputes. This thesis explores the water management efforts of Pakistan and India. These countries are facing a water crisis, whereby numerous citizens have died due to dehydration and diseases contracted by polluted water. This thesis hypothesizes that the water crisis may be primarily due to ineffective water management rather than external factors. Political strife between India and Pakistan adds a layer of complexity to the issue because the Indus River Basin is a vital resource that both countries share and rely on that passes through the disputed territory of Kashmir. In addition to analyzing effective water management, this thesis also examines how political turmoil with a neighboring country, i.e., India, can impact the water crisis in Pakistan. The findings of this thesis determine that effective information management on the status of available water is crucial in addition to the firm implementation of pollution policies and conservation practices, in order to efficiently manage water resources. The absence of political tensions is also necessary to manage and share water with a neighboring country peacefully rather than using water as political leverage. To curb the water crisis, Pakistan and India must prioritize conservation practices through the use of innovative irrigation methods such as drip irrigation and prevent water pollution by mandating and regulating wastewater treatment plants.



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