Dissertations and Theses

Date of Award


Document Type



International Relations

First Advisor

Jeffrey Kucik


Gender, Top-down, Bottom-up


The international community has attempted to integrate and implement norms into their domestic structure for many decades. They have incorporated the norm of gender equality through many different measures, however failed to identify a successful approach to implementing this type of norm effectively. This paper will explore how these international norms are spread and analyze two separate approaches to integrating gender equality: top-down and bottom-up. It will assess these approaches through a case-study analysis of India and Ghana. This will provide an in-depth explanation of each approach and it will analyze how they have, respectively, impacted the country’s education and employment sectors. Therefore this paper will not only depict how norms are spread but prove that a top-down approach, as seen in Ghana, is more successful in the implementation of those norms.



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