Dissertations and Theses

Date of Award


Document Type



International Relations

First Advisor

Jean Krasno

Second Advisor

Bruce Cronin


Human development, policy, education


This thesis examines the prioritization of human development through governmental policies. Education and gender equality are two of the most fundamental indicators of human development that have far reaching impacts on other human development indicators. This thesis uses the case studies of Ghana and Pakistan to compare and contrast how each respective government has prioritized different aspects of human development and the impact it has had on their country as well as their security. I propose that higher levels of human development increase levels of security and that when there is low physical security, human development levels are also low. This thesis evaluates the policies and emphasis the Ghanaian government has enacted to improve the human development levels for its population and compare that to the actions taken by the Pakistani government. The data and evidence shows that while the government of Ghana has prioritized health and educational equality, there is much improvement to be made in the aspect of gender equality as well as poverty. Pakistan on the other hand, over emphasizes military security and spending while not investing enough in the services of its people, particularly in the areas that need it most that are affected by natural disasters and violence. Ghana is actively initiating policies to improve the impoverished areas that need assistance, whereas Pakistan is ignoring those troubled areas, and focusing on the military role in those areas rather than the human development. . My policy recommendations are that States must prioritize funding of services to its citizens to increase levels of human development. Furthermore, these efforts must be systemic in their application with concrete and attainable goals. NGOs are important actors in the field of human development in their own right and play and important role, however, governments capacity to make systemic changes is the most crucial to enacting widespread change and improvements to the lives of its citizens.



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