Dissertations and Theses

Date of Award


Document Type



Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Masahiro Kawaji


Experimental work has been conducted to analyze the interactions and morphology of three fluids, an air bubble and oil droplet in water. The experimental results have been compared to a morphology diagram based on the spreading factors that depend on the interfacial tension between two fluids. The possible morphologies are complete engulfment, partial engulfment, and no coalescence. The experimental study utilized an acrylic tube filled with water where an air bubble and oil droplet were injected and forced to interact after injection. Following the surface tension and interfacial tension measurements of mineral oil, silicone oil, olive oil, water, and air, two out of four possible morphology regions have been realized: partial engulfment and complete engulfment. The remaining two regions could not be obtained with water as the continuous fluid. Furthermore, varying the flow rate of oil and air was found to affect the final droplet size and shape. The air and oil emulsion in water experimentally confirmed the numerical simulation work done on final morphologies of rising bubble and droplet interactions. Understanding the behavior of water, oil, and gas double emulsions experimentally and through simulation will benefit separation methods that remain inefficient, particularly in froth flotation.



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