Two quasi-experiments were conducted to assess the effects of exposure to instructional objectives on the achievement of undergraduates enrolled in an educational psychology course. Students enrolled in morning and afternoon course sections during the fall semester did not receive objects. Comparable students enrolled in morning and afternoon sections of the course during the subsequent spring semester did. Regression analyses that controlled for age and past achievement indicated that among afternoon classes, exposure to objectives improved performance on the midterm and final exams by at least 7 points. No significant effects were found for the morning classes. It was argued that objectives are not a substitute for effective instruction but may be considered a useful adjunct in college teaching.
Schonfeld, I.S., Rasmussen, E., Nieto, R., & Sims, C. (1988). Enhancing undergraduate achievement in educational psychology with instructional objectives. Education, 109(2), 165-169.