The effects of adverse work environments were examined in the context of other risk/protective factors in this extension of a short-term longitudinal study involving 184 newly appointed women teachers. Regression analyses revealed that, adjusting for preemployment levels of the outcomes and negative affectivity, social support and adversity in the fall work environment were among the factors that affected spring depressive symptoms, self-esteem, job satisfaction, and motivation to teach. Support from nonwork sources was directly related to future improved symptom levels and self-esteem; supervisor and colleague support were directly related to future job satisfaction. Effects of occupational coping, professional efficacy, locus of control, and school factors (e.g., special vs regular education) were largely nonsignificant. Structural equation analyses indicated that adverse working conditions began to seriously affect the women soon after they started teaching.
Schonfeld, I.S. (2001). Stress in 1st-year women teachers: The context of social support and coping. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 127(2), 133-168.