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Bilingualism requires control of multiple language systems, and may lead to architectural differences in language networks obtained from clinical fMRI tasks. Emerging connectivity metrics such as k-core may capture these differences, highlighting crucial network components based on resiliency. We investigated the influence of bilingualism on clinical fMRI language tasks and characterized bilingual networks using connectivity metrics to provide a patient care benchmark. Sixteen right-handed subjects (mean age 42-years; nine males) without neurological history were included: eight native English-speaking monolinguals and eight native Spanish-speaking (L1) bilinguals with acquired English (L2). All subjects underwent fMRI with gold-standard clinical language tasks. Starting from active clusters on fMRI, we inferred the persistent functional network across subjects and ran centrality measures to characterize differences. Our results demonstrated a persistent network “core” consisting of Broca’s area, the pre-supplementary motor area, and the premotor area. K-core analysis showed that Wernicke’s area was engaged by the “core” with weaker connection in L2 than L1.


This article was originally published in Scientific Reports, available at

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