Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



1. Real time, in vivo microvoltammetric studies were performed, using miniature carbon-based sensors, to concurrently detect norepinephrine (NE) release and serotonin (5-HT) release, in 2 separate electrochemical signals, within CA1 region of hippocampus in the freely moving and behaving, male, Sprague Dawley laboratory rat.

2. Concurrently, four parameters of open-field Behavior I.E. Ambulations, Rearing, Fine Movements and Central Ambulatory behavior (a measure of anxiety reduction behavior), were assayed by infrared photobeam detection.

3. Time course studies showed that the mechanism of action of the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD), adinazolam, (Deracyn®) is dramatically different from that of the classical benzodiazepine (BZD), diazepam (Valium®) i.e., adinazolam increased, whereas diazepam decreased, 5-HT release within CA1 region of hippocampus in the freely moving and behaving rat.

4. Adinazolam initially increased NE release and then decreased NE release in CA1 region of hippocampus in the freely moving and behaving rat whereas diazepam only decreased the electrochemical signal for NE; the decrease in NE produced by adinazolam was greater than the decrease in NE release produced by diazepam.

5. The Behavioral Activity Patterns, derived from same animal controls, simultaneously with detection of in vivo microvoltammetric signals for NE release and 5-HT release, showed that the BZD, diazepam, exhibited more potent sedative properties than did the TBZD adinazolam.

6. Hippocampal 5-HT and NE release effects of the TBZD, adinazolam, concomitant with behavioral effects lends explanation to the dual anxiolytic/antidepressant properties of the TBZDs.


This article was originally published in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, available at



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.