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The molecular evolution of medulloblastoma is more complex than previously imagined, as emerging evidence suggests that multiple interactions between the tumor cells and components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) are important for tumor promotion and progression. The identification of several molecular networks within the TME, which interact with tumoral cells, has provided new clues to understand the tumorigenic roles of many TME components as well as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies regarding the roles of astrocytes in supporting sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastoma (MB) and provide an overview of MB progression through SHH expression and signal transduction mechanisms into the complex tumor microenvironment. In addition, we highlight the associations between tumor and stromal cells as possible prognostic markers that could be targeted with new therapeutic strategies.


This work was originally published in Current Oncology, available at

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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